Bonus: While this research can seem a bit high-level, it has profound real-world impacts on how technology products and services get adopted. Profits increase as sales increase. The problem is that diffusion requires a certain degree of heterophily; if two individuals are identical, no diffusion occurs because no new information can be exchanged. Rubin 1985 , as cited in Littlejohn 1996 , suggests that audience motive research based on uses and gratification research has been too compartmentalized within certain cultures and demographic groups, leading to the assumption this has thwarted synthesis and integration of research results, which are two key ingredients in theory building. The results are usually concerned with issues of societal well-being. It is usually measured by the length of time required for a certain percentage of the members of a social system to adopt an innovation , p. Innovators are very important communication.
Jae is also a regular contributor to The American Lawyer. However, most participants in the diffusion of innovations are heterophilous, meaning they speak different languages, so to speak. But strong interpersonal ties are usually more effective in the formation and change of strongly held attitudes 311. The five phases in change are: awareness, interest, preparation, action, and maintenance. Due to the individualistic nature of this stage, Rogers notes that it is the most difficult stage to acquire empirical evidence.
Critical mass is the time in the adoption curve when enough individuals have adopted an innovation so that the continued adoption of the innovation is self-sustaining. The authority-innovation decision occurs when the adoption of an innovation has been made by very few individuals with high positions of power within an organization , p. Giving potential buyers experience with your product speeds adoption. Whenever Donald considers upgrading his personal computer system, he consults with Jeremy, a knowledgeable friend who always has the newest technology. Over time, the innovative idea or product becomes diffused amongst the population until a saturation point is achieved. In this review, I will outline these basic characteristics of an innovation and its context that correlate with its diffusion.
The newness and unfamiliarity of an innovation infuse the cost-benefit analysis with a large dose of uncertainty. How do we get the rest of the folks i. While others may consider the innovator to be rash or daring, it is the hazardous risk-taking that is of salient value to this type of individual. Important factors in decision making include who makes the decision, and whether the decision is made freely and implemented voluntarily. It is capable of being presented as a discipline, capable of being learned, capable of being practiced. This could be employees at an institution, a neighborhood or a whole nation.
The next 34 percent of the adopters are called the early majority. Those who fully grasp these lessons can do both good and well. For homophilous systems, however, encouraging the diffusion of an innovation is a far more difficult business. Obviously the more advantage a product has over existing products, the easier adoption will be. Strategies to appeal to this population include how-to manuals and information sheets on implementation. Obviously then, adoption is necessary and the driver of diffusion.
Otherwise only the innovators and the early adopters will jump on board, along with some, but not all, of the early majority. Rogers mapped out this process, stressing that in most cases, an initial few are open to the new idea and adopt its use. The opinion leaders will then be able to use this argument, which will hopefully resonate with the masses, to support their own adoption decision. And, protect your advantage or someone else will create a better one before you know it. Their adoption may be borne out of economic necessity and in response to increasing social pressure.
Research done in the early 1950s at the University of Chicago attempted to assess the cost-effectiveness of broadcast advertising on the diffusion of new products and services. Over years of research, Rogers identified some fascinating personality traits that help us organize how people will accept a new innovation. These people are very willing to take risks, and are often the first to develop new ideas. Inject an innovation into a group of individuals who would readily use an innovation, and provide positive reactions and benefits for early adopters of an innovation. Generally, in homophilous systems, opinion leaders do not control attitudes as much as pre-existing norms do.
A prime example is the use of social media networking to influence people through opinion leader tactics. Rogers synthesized research from over 508 diffusion studies and produced a theory for the adoption of innovations among individuals and organizations. Legal Evolution is directed at a specific social system: those entering or working within the legal industry. During this stage of the process the individual has not been inspired to find more information about the new idea. Unlike the optional innovation decision process, these innovation-decision processes only occur within an organization or hierarchical group. Instead, the s-curve can be seen as being made up of a series of 'bell curves' of different sections of a population adopting different versions of a generic innovation. Usually, innovators have substantial financial resources, and the ability to understand and apply complex technical knowledge.