Simmons decision-making model there are four phases 1 Intelligence phase 2 Design phase 3 Choice phase 4 Implementatio … n phase Initially the problem comes and we are in the intelligence phase thinking of the problem as it comes and then we try to find out what the solution to the given problem and then we move to design phase. But is it not often the case that in a complex, chaotic situation, it's the simple solution that works? Choices tend to be confined to the neighborhood of the problem symptom and to the neighborhood of the current alternative. In most cases, they will represent familiar criteria and previously tried-and-true solutions. Obviously, there would be no need to make a decision without having a problem. Thus, it is important to take decisions in a systematic way, so that the decision you make has high chances of being successful. The care has to be taken such that the total weight and volume of the selected items should not exceed more than the allowed weight and the volume.
While some of these models have six steps others rely on more than a dozen. Up to are done differently! The six step decision making process is a process. Steps of the Decision Making Process The following are the seven key steps of the decision making process. The intent is for people to be treated fairly and with dignity and not as a means to an end. Many of these standards can lead to a cohesive ethical decision-making model.
Consider this example: Tenants at an older office building are complaining that their employees are getting angry and frustrated because there is always a long delay getting an elevator to the lobby at rush hour. Resources can include people i. The strengths and weakness of each alternative become evident as they compared with the criteria and weights established in second and third steps. Not surprisingly, the greatest pitfall is to not evaluate the decision. In other words, there are steps laid out for you to follow. It should be noted here that uncertainty is reduced rather than eliminated.
Once you have listed the available options, you have to examine each option and make a section for options that sound to be very promising and those that seem not so relevant. This step can involve anything from a few seconds of though to a few months or more of formal collaborative planning, depending on the nature of the decision. Choose an Alternative Managers weigh the pros and cons of each potential solution, seek additional information if needed and select the option they feel has the best chance of success at the least cost. The problem with most animals is that they go … more in emotion or instinct rather than rationalization. In this step, you will list all possible and desirable alternatives.
Those reports and ratings are accomplished by incorporating a ranking system where the user enters a value reflecting the importance of the criteria on a scale. Each step must be completed before you go to the next step. The decisions that are made, from the boardroom and the corner office on down, dictate the direction that the company goes. Step 2: Identify Decision Criteria: Next you must help your client discover and write out what is most important to them when making their decision. The answer with the most positive aspects or outcomes is the one you should be most happy with if you have been honest with yourself on the pluses and minuses.
Knowing the potential risk involved in the decision one makes would aid in preparing for the problem that arises with the decision. So the final solution represents a satisfying choice rather than an optimal one. Just making a decision and implementing it, is not the end of the decision-making procedure. This can be helpful when you attempt to weigh criteria that have similar ratings by using an absolute comparison. Affect of the decision on you and the people around you. Complex challenges for teams, working groups and boards etc. These criteria are conditions that would help you in evaluating the different options and would aid you in taking the decision.
Step Three: Develop Alternative Solutions Analytical, creative problem solving is about creating a variety of solutions, not just one. Rational decision making models are typically described as linear, sequential processes. Weight the criteria The decision-maker weights the previously identified criteria in order to give them correct priority in the decision. In the given problem a list of 26 items is given they all have different price, different weights and different volumes. What new problems did the solution create? Decisions made in the past are ghost that continually haunt current choices. As you consider positive and negative consequences, you must be careful to differentiate between what you know for a fact and what you believe might be the case. You also have to summarize the results you got for each option to make the final decision.
Cultural Differences The rational model does not acknowledge cultural differences. If it has not met the need you identified in Step 1, go back to a previous stage and reevaluate. This stage is a filtration process where the options that seem to be irrelevant should be taken out of the list and only the best possible ones retained. Answer Simmons decision-making model there are four phases 1 Intelligence phase 2 Design phase 3 Choice phase 4 Implementation phase Initially the problem comes and we are in the intelligence phase thinking of the problem as it comes and then we try to find out what the solution to the given problem and then we move to design phase. While this is not a standard model, it does reveal the underlying ideas business leaders use to make ethical choices. Decision maker avoid the difficult task of considering all the important factors, weighing their relative merits and drawbacks, and calculating the value for each alternative. They desire more information and consider more alternatives than do directives.
For instance, if there is an issue with employees getting to work on time, managers could install policies that change the time workers report, but if they are not careful, it may have a detrimental impact on other workers, and even clients. After finding the method which is to be applied to the given problem we move to choice phase and here the actual work of finding the best algorithm come. However, putting ethics on the backburner can spell trouble for any organization. At this stage, it is also necessary to make a note of the consequences that are not desirable once the decision is made. The problem says that we have to find the items which can be fitted in to the given space of the container the number of items chosen to be fitted in to the given space should be such that the weight and the volume of the selected items should not be more than the total allowed volume and weight in the container. Determine what the possible answers to the question could be. Experience allows the expert to recognize a situation and draw on previously learned information associated with that situation to arrive quickly at a decision.